The Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program is conducting experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory with the goal of igniting a propagating thermonuclear burn wave in DT fuel leading to energy gain (defined as fusion yield/input laser energy >1). To do this the NIF laser delivers up to ~ 2 MJ of energy to a hohlraum (cylindrical cavity) which generates x-rays that implode a ~2 mm diameter spherical capsule filled with a solid layer of cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel.
Having the knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes necessary to make informed decisions on scientific issues.
We will discuss modern technologies that rely on biomass degradation to simple derivatives, such as sugars, followed by a number of reactions, such as isomerization, acid-based chemistry, and etherification to convert sugars to valuable intermediates, such as furans and green monomers. Cross-cutting technologies, including hierarchical multiscale materials and models, will be reviewed.
In principle, evolution can take a nearly unlimited number of possible paths. Using laboratory experimental evolution, we can run the same evolutionary experiment in hundreds of parallel populations. We observe that each population finds a unique genotypic solution. Yet, in these data, phenotypic patterns emerge suggesting that there are a limited number of accessible pathways to substantially higher fitness. Therefore, despite the inherent randomness of genotypic evolution, phenotypic evolution is strongly constrained, and perhaps even predictable.
Former Gov. Christine Todd Whitman has been named as an ambassador for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Minorities in Energy Initiative, which aims to increase the participation of minority communities in businesses and careers in science and technology fields related to energy and climate change.
Science fans of all ages can explore a rich variety of science and technology topics at the popular Science on Saturday lecture series hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The series marks its 30-year anniversary when it begins on Saturday, Jan. 11.
Science on Saturday offers free lectures about current topics from “The physics of cancer,” to “What art can tell us about the brain,” that are aimed at the general public from high school age and up.
A private, independent academic institution in Princeton, New Jersey, the Institute for Advanced Study is one of the world's leading centers for theoretical research and intellectual inquiry. Founded in 1930, it exists to encourage and support curiosity-driven research in the sciences and humanities. Diverse scholars including Albert Einstein, Erwin Panofsky, John von Neumann, J.
When fossil fuel CO2 is released to the atmosphere, it essentially accumulates in the relatively rapidly cycling atmosphere / ocean / land biosphere carbon cycle. The atmospheric concentration of CO2 spikes through a time period of CO2 emissions, then is expected to slowly decline over the centuries as CO2 invades the ocean. The “lifetime” of fossil fuel CO2 in the atmosphere is a complicated question because there are multiple processes operating, but in general the CO2 concentration will be higher than natural for hundreds of thousands of years.
Researchers at Princeton University and the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) have launched a new center to study the volatile heliosphere — a complex and frequently violent region of space that encompasses the solar system. This region is carved out by the solar wind — charged plasma particles that constantly stream from the sun — and gives rise to space weather that can disrupt cell phone service, damage satellites and knock out power grids.